Monday, 4 April 2011

"It has been said that adoption is more like a marriage than a birth: two (or more) individuals,  each with their ownunique mix of needs,patterns, and genetic history, coming together with love,hope,and commitment for a joint future. You become a family not because you share the same genes, but because you share love for each other".
"A baby is a miraculous gift from God, no matter how one receives it.  Some are given the ability bear hem, others the ability to rear them".

What is child adoption?

With an increase in steps of life improvement of technology and increasing pollution level, infertility level is increasing in couples.  Adoption is a process whereby a person assumes the parenting for another who is not kin and, in so doing, permanently transfers all rights and responsibilities from the original parent or parents. Unlike guardianship or other systems designed for the care of the young, adoption is intended to effect a permanent change in status and as such requires societal recognition, either through legal or religious sanction. Historically some societies have enacted specific laws governing adoption whereas others have endeavored to achieve adoption through less formal means, notably via contracts that specified inheritance rights and parental responsibilities. Modern systems of adoption, arising in the 20th century, tend to be governed by comprehensive statutes and regulations. Adoption has a long history in the Western world, closely tied with the legacy of the Roman Empire and the Catholic Church. Its use has changed considerably over the centuries with its focus shifting from adult adoption and inheritance issues toward children and family creation and its structure moving from a recognition of continuity between the adopted and kin toward allowing relationships of lessened intensity.


History of child adoption




History of ADOPTION starts when Trajan became emperor of Rome through adoption, a customary practice of the empire that enabled peaceful transitions of power.
While the modern form of adoption emerged in the United States, forms of the practice appeared throughout history. The Code of Hammurabi, for example, details the rights of adopters and the responsibilities of adopted individuals at length and the practice of adoption in ancient Rome is well documented in the Codex Justinianus.

Markedly different from the modern period, ancient adoption practices put emphasis on the political and economic interests of the adopter, providing a legal tool that strengthened political ties between wealthy families and creating male heirs to manage estates. The use of adoption by the aristocracy is well documented; many of Rome's emperors were adopted sons.

Infant adoption during Antiquity appears rare. Abandoned children were often picked up for slavery and composed a significant percentage of the Empire’s slave supply. Roman legal records indicate that foundlings were occasionally taken in by families and raised as a son or daughter. Although not normally adopted under Roman Law, the children, called alumni, were reared in an arrangement similar to guardianship, being considered the property of the father who abandoned them.

Other ancient civilizations, notably India and China, utilized some form of adoption as well. Evidence suggests their practices aimed to ensure the continuity of cultural and religious practices, in contrast to the Western idea of extending family lines. In ancient India, secondary sonship, clearly denounced by the Rigveda, continued, in a limited and highly ritualistic form, so that an adopter might have the necessary funerary rites performed by a son. China had a similar conception of adoption with males adopted solely to perform the duties of ancestor worship.

The middle age


The nobility of the Germanic, Celtic, and Slavic cultures that dominated Europe after the decline of the Roman Empire denounced the practice of adoption. In medieval society, bloodlines were paramount; a ruling dynasty lacking a natural-born heir apparent was replaced, a stark contrast to Roman traditions. The evolution of European law reflects this aversion to adoption. English Common Law, for instance, did not permit adoption since it contradicted the customary rules of inheritance. In the same vein, France's Napoleonic Code made adoption difficult, requiring adopters to be over the age of 50, sterile, older than the adopted person by at least fifteen years, and to have fostered the adoptee for at least six years. Some adoptions continued to occur, however, but became informal, based on ad hoc contracts. For example, in the year 737, in a charter from the town of Lucca, three adoptees were made heirs to an estate. Like other contemporary arrangements, the agreement stressed the responsibility of the adopted rather than adopter, focusing on the fact that, under the contract, the adoptive father was meant to be cared for in his old age; an idea that recalls conceptions of adoption under Roman law.

Europe's cultural makeover marked a period of significant innovation for adoption. Without support from the nobility, the practice gradually shifted toward abandoned children. Abandonment levels rose with the fall of the empire and many of the foundlings were left on the doorstep of the Church. Initially, the clergy reacted by drafting rules to govern the exposing, selling, and rearing of abandoned children. The Church's innovation, however, was the practice of oblation, whereby children were dedicated to lay life within monastic institutions and reared within a monastery. This created the first system in European history in which abandoned children were without legal, social, or moral disadvantage. As a result, many of Europe's abandoned and orphaned became alumni of the Church, which in turn took the role of adopter. Oblation marks the beginning of a shift toward institutionalization, eventually bringing about the establishment of the foundling hospital and orphanage As the idea of institutional care gained acceptance, formal rules appeared about how to place children into families: boys could become apprenticed to an artisan and girls might be married off under the institution's authority. Institutions informally adopted out children as well, a mechanism treated as a way to obtain cheap labor, demonstrated by the fact that when the adopted died, their bodies were returned by the family to the institution for burial.

This system of apprenticeship and informal adoption extended into the 19th century, today seen as a transitional phase for adoption history. Under the direction of social welfare activists, orphan asylums began to promote adoptions based on sentiment rather than work, and children were placed out under agreements to provide care for them as family members instead of under contracts for apprenticeship. The growth of this model is believed to have contributed to the enactment of the first modern adoption law in 1851 by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, unique in that it codified the ideal of the "best interests of the child." Despite its intent, though, in practice, the system operated much the same as earlier incarnations. The experience of the Boston Female Asylum (BFA) is a good example, which had up to 30% of its charges adopted out by 1888. Officials of the BFA noted that, although the asylum promoted otherwise, adoptive parents did not distinguish between indenture and adoption; "We believe," the asylum officials said, "that often, when children of a younger age are taken to be adopted, the adoption is only another name for service".

Modern Period

The next stage of adoption's evolution fell to the emerging nation of the United States. Rapid immigration and the aftermath of the American Civil War resulted in unprecedented overcrowding of orphanages and foundling homes in the mid-nineteenth century. Charles Loring Brace, a Protestant minister became appalled by the legions of homeless waifs roaming the streets of New York City. Brace considered the abandoned youth, particularly Catholics, to be the most dangerous element challenging the city's order.




His solution was outlined in The Best Method of Disposing of Our Pauper and Vagrant Children (1859) which started the Orphan Train movement. The orphan trains eventually shipped an estimated 200,000 children from the urban centers of the East to the nation's rural regions. The children were generally indentured, rather than adopted, to families who took them in. As in times past, some children were raised as members of the family while others were used as farm laborers and household servants.

Forms of Adoption

There are two types of Contemporary adoption practices i.e open and closed.

  • Open adoption allows identifying information to be communicated between adoptive and biological parents and, perhaps, interaction between kin and the adopted person. Rarely, it is the outgrowth of laws that maintain an adoptee's right to unaltered birth certificates and/or adoption records, but such access is not universal (it is possible in a few jurisdictions - including the U.K. and six States in the U.S.). Open adoption can be an informal arrangement subject to termination by adoptive parents who have sole authority over the child. In some jurisdictions, the biological and adoptive parents may enter into a legally-enforceable and binding agreement concerning visitation, exchange of information, or other interaction regarding the child. As of February 2009, 24 U.S. states allowed legally enforceable open adoption contract agreements to be included in the adoption finalization.
  • The practice of closed adoption, the norm for most of modern history, seals all identifying information, maintaining it as secret and barring disclosure of the adoptive parents', biological kins', and adoptees' identities. Nevertheless, closed adoption, may allow the transmittal of non-identifying information such as medical history and religious and ethnic background. Today, as a result of safe haven laws passed by some U.S. states, closed adoption is seeing renewed influence. In safe-haven states, infants can be left, anonymously, at hospitals, fire departments, or police stations within a few days of birth, a practice criticized by some adoptee advocacy organizations as being retrograde and dangerous.

Child Adoption Across The World


International Adoption

In International Adoption,an individual or couple becomes the legal and permanent parents of a child that is a national of a different country. In general, prospective adoptive parents must meet the legal adoption requirements of their country of residence and those of the country whose nationality the child holds.

The laws of different countries vary in their willingness to allow international adoptions. Some countries, such as China and Korea, have relatively well-established rules and procedures for international adoptions, while other countries expressly forbid it. Some countries, notably many African nations, have extended residency requirements for adoptive parents that in effect rule out most international adoptions. Malawi, for instance, requires residency except in special cases.


Going overseas to find that baby is so much easier and faster for North American and Canadian couples that International adoptions are fast becoming the preferred choice of many prospective parents keen to adopt, especially those hiring the services of a private agency.



Rules & Regulations

International Laws
A country's willingness to allow international adoption will vary to accommodate those countries laws. Some countries, such as China and Vietnam, have relatively well-established rules and procedures for foreign adopters to follow, while others, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) for example, expressly forbid it. Some countries, notably many African nations, have extended residency requirements that in effect rule out most international adoptions. Others, such as Romania are closed to international adoption altogether, with the exception of adoptions by close relatives (such as grandparents). However, as of 2009, many countries around the world are completely closed off to international adoption because of accusations of exporting children of selling natives to foreigners and the shame that most governments feel about not being able to support their own children

Indian Laws
In India, an Indian, Non Resident Indian (NRI), or a foreign citizen may adopt a child. There are specific guidelines and documentation for each group of prospective adoptive parents. A single female or a married couple can adopt a child. In India, a single male is usually not eligible to be an adoptive parent. An exception to this rule is the noted dance instructor Sandip Soparrkar, who has recently adopted a young boy. This is a special case rather than the norm. A single man desiring to adopt a child may be eligible if he applies through a registered agency. However, he will still only be able to adopt a male child.

An adoptive parent should be medically fit and financially able to care for a child. A person wishing to adopt a child must be at least 21 years old. There is no legal upper age limit for parents but most adoptive agencies set their own benchmarks with regard to age. For a child who is less than a year old, the adoptive parents can have a maximum combined age of 90 years. Also, neither parent must be older than 45 years.

Legal Issues In Adoption

Taboo
Adoption is still a taboo in many conservative societies. Although many couples plan to go for adoption, often strong protests come from immediate family members. There is a notion that because the child does not have the same genes, it will be difficult to bring up the child. The parents who decide to move away from the set societal belief are often criticized.

Insecurity
The child who is being adopted might feel insecure when he/she comes to know that he/she is being adopted. The child might get depressed with the sudden realisation that he/she would be taken away from the orphanage, a place that he/she knows and is comfortable in, to a completely new house that he/she has never been to or knows of.

Process
One of the most common disadvantages of adoption is the process involved. Many couples hesitate to go through the process because of the prolonged time taken. There are a lot of legal hassles that couples need to cross before being able to actually take a child home. Plus, the child might also want to know about his/her original parents, the moment he/she learns about adoption. This might take a longer time to convince the child and to make him/her feel comfortable about the new family.

Change of Mind
It might so happen that the biological mother of the child appears suddenly and claims her child back. This is a common happening wherein the biological mother feels a sudden urge to get back to her child. Though there are legal restrictions, this might make the adoptive parents think over their decision.

Developmental Setbacks
It might take some time for the orphan, who is from a different culture and living condition, to accept and get adjusted to the sudden change. The child might take some extra time to get accustomed to the new living conditions.

Potential Disappointment
In an open adoptive set up, the biological parents might get an opportunity to talk, observe and get to know the adoptive parents. This gives place for disappointment when the adoptive family is unable to meet the expectations of the biological parents

Expensive
International adoption may prove to be quite expensive on the adoptive parents. The travel expenses are high and there is no guarantee that the adoptive parents can finish all the formalities in a single visit.



Common Post-Adoption issues

Parents often have a harder time figuring out how to let their child know about the adoption than they do telling their relatives and friends. They become anxious deciding how much to tell their child, and how to get the timing right so as not to disclose too much at once and risk upsetting the child. Many of these fears are probably unnecessary. Although there is no single "right way" for parents to talk to their child about adoption, adoption agencies and professionals encourage families to be open and honest with the child from the beginning about the fact that they are adopted and not make it a family secret or "big deal".

Very young children should be told about their adoption in simple terms that convey how much they were loved by their birth parents and by their adoptive parents. Many age-appropriate books can be used to help the child understand. As the child matures, the story will need to have details added to answer additional questions that the child may have concerning the circumstances of the adoption as his or her understanding grows. Parents should not mistake a child's failure to ask detailed questions about the adoption for lack of interest or concern regarding the topic. While the child may not have any issues about adoption, the child's silence may be a means of coping with feelings of abandonment or resentment. Such feelings can cause problems for the child in later relationships and should be identified, addressed, and defused as best as possible during childhood. Parents may need to jumpstart discussions on the topic of adoption to get the older child talking.



Life Long Issues In Adoption

Adoption is a lifelong, intergenerational process that unites the triad of birth families, adoptees, and adoptive families forever. Adoption, especially of adolescents, can lead to both great joy and tremendous pain. Recognizing the core issues in adoption is one intervention that can assist triad members and professionals working in adoption better to understand each other and the residual effect Adoption triggers seven lifelong or core issues for all triad members, regardless of the circumstances of the adoption or the characteristics of the participants :

1. Loss - Adoption is created through loss; without loss there would be no adoption. Loss, then, is at the hub of the wheel. All birth parents, adoptive parents, and adoptees share in having experienced at least one major, life-altering loss before becoming involved in adoption

2. Rejection - Feelings of loss are exacerbated by keen feelings of rejection. One way individuals seek to cope with a loss is to personalize it. Triad members attempt to decipher what they did or did not do that led to the loss. 

3. Guilt or Shame - The sense of deserving such rejection leads triad members to experience tremendous guilt and shame. They commonly believe that there is something intrinsically wrong with them or their deeds that caused the losses to occur.

4. Grief - Every loss in adoption must be grieved. The losses in adoption, however, are difficult to mourn in a society where adoption is seen as a problem-solving event filled with joy.

5. Identity - Adoption may also threaten triad members' sense of identity. Triad members often express feelings related to confused identity and identity crises, particularly at times of unrelated loss.

6. Intimacy - The multiple, ongoing losses in adoption, coupled with feelings of rejection, shame, and grief as well as an incomplete sense of self, may impede the development of intimacy for triad members.

7. Mastery/control - Birth parents may come to equate sex, intimacy, and pregnancy with pain leading them to avoid additional loss by shunning intimate relationships. Further, birth parents may question their ability to parent a child successfully.



Psychiatric Problems Of Adopted Persons

Mental health experts disagree among themselves on whether adopted persons evince a greater level of mental illness than non-adopted persons. Vastly differing percentages of adopted persons in the institutionalized population have been reported, ranging from 5% to as high as 25% or more, depending on which study is used.

Many adoptive parents enjoy a higher socioeconomic level than the average person and can thus afford psychiatric treatment, both inpatient and outpatient. (And also may have insurance coverage for such treatment.) Another issue is an element of the self-fulfilling prophecy among those seeking psychiatric help for their children, i.e., if an adopted child seems to be having emotional difficulties, then adoptive parents might seek psychiatric help specifically because of a presumption that adopted children are more likely to have psychiatric problems. These visits to the psychiatrists are then, in turn, used by researchers to "prove" that adopted children are more disturbed than the general population.



Organisations supporting Adoption

The Alliance
The Alliance has worked together with the Los Angeles Juvenile Court and the Department of Children and Family Services to expedite and increase the number of children adopted from Los Angeles foster care. The Alliance’s Foster Children’s Adoption Project combines (1) public education, (2) free legal services to finalize adoptions, and (3) pre- and post-adoption legal and social services for children and their families, such as assistance obtaining health services, adoption assistance benefits, and independent living services. The Alliance completes nearly half of all foster children’s adoptions in Los Angeles County each year.

                                              

The Children's Action Network
Formed in 1990 by leaders in the entertainment industry, the Children's Action Network (CAN) is dedicated to improving the lives of America’s children. Through extensive public education campaigns, community-based programs and policy initiatives, CAN uses the power of the entertainment community to increase awareness about children’s issues and make them a top priority in everyday life.
        
                                        


Congressional Coalition on Adoption Institute (CCAI)
The Congressional Coalition on Adoption Institute (CCAI) is a nonprofit, nonpartisan organization dedicated to raising awareness about the tens of thousands of children in the U.S. foster care system and the millions of orphans around the world in need of permanent, safe, and loving homes; and to eliminating the barriers that hinder these children from realizing their basic need of a family. CCAI strives to accomplish its mission by serving as an informational and educational resource to policymakers as they seek to draft positive adoption legislation and to focusing public attention on the advantages of adoption. CCAI works in collaboration with the Congressional Coalition on Adoption (CCA), which is a bicameral, bipartisan caucus, with more than 190 Members of Congress.

                          

Dave Thomas Foundation
The Dave Thomas Foundation for Adoption is a national nonprofit public charity dedicated to dramatically increasing the adoptions of the more than 150,000 children waiting in North America’s foster care systems. Created by Wendy’s founder, Dave Thomas, who was adopted, the Foundation implements results-driven national signature programs, foster care adoption awareness initiatives and research-based advocacy efforts.

                                   

Freddie Mac Foundation
The Freddie Mac Foundation, sustained by its endowment, is dedicated to making home a place where children and families thrive. The Foundation funds programs in the areas of stable homes/stable families; academic and career success; and foster care and adoption. Through the Freddie Mac Foundation Wednesday’s Child program in five major metropolitan areas, and the Freddie Mac Foundation Heart Gallery, we have helped find adoptive homes for more than 1,500 children in foster care.

                                

Policies Of Adoption

Adoption policies for each country vary widely. Items such as the age of the adoptive parents, financial status, educational level, marital status and history, number of dependent children in the house, sexual orientation, weight, psychological health, and ancestry are used by different countries to determine what parents are eligible to adopt from that country. Items such as the age of the child, fees and expenses, and the amount of travel time required in the child's birth country, can also vary widely from one country to another.

Each country sets its own rules, timelines and requirements surrounding adoption, and there are also rules that vary within the United States for each state. Each country and often each part of the country, also sets its own rules about what type of information will be shared and how it will be shared (e.g. a picture of the child, child's health). Reliability and verifiability of the information is also variable.

The U.S. Department of State has designated two accrediting entities for organizations providing inter-country adoption services in the United States that work with sending countries that have ratified the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Inter-country Adoption. They are the Council on Accreditation and the Colorado Department of Health and Human Services. The U.S. Department of State maintains a list of all accredited international adoption providers.

Adoption by Homosexual Couples

Same sex adoption as it is most commonly referred to or LGBT adoption simply means the adoption of a child by a lesbian, gay, bisexual or trans-gendered couple. In the past, gay couples have had to be secretive in adopting a child due to certain prejudices that existed against homosexuality. For example, one partner would adopt the child as a single parent and the other would pretend to be a roommate or friend. Gay adoption is nothing new. Gays and lesbians have been adopting for a long time, but only recently have gay adoptions been done openly.

All research have come to the conclusions :
1. The children of LGBT parents grow up as successfully as heterosexual parents. In fact, not a single study has found that children of gay or lesbian couples to be disadvantaged because of their parent’s sexual orientation.

2. There is no evidence to suggest that gay or lesbian couples are unfit to be parents.

3. Home environments with LGBT couples are as likely to successfully support a child’s development as those with heterosexual parents.

4. Good parenting is not influenced by sexual orientation. Rather, it is influenced most profoundly by a parent’s ability to create a loving and nurturing home – an ability that does not depend on whether a parent is gay or straight.

5. There is no evidence to suggest that the child of a gay or lesbian couple is less intelligent, suffers more from problems, is less popular or has a lower self-esteem than a child of a heterosexual couple.

6. The children of LGBT parents grow up just as happy, healthy and well-adjusted as the children of heterosexual parents.

Society is changing, and the traditional idea of the nuclear family with married mother and father is no longer the only acceptable alternative. The reason that many countries are beginning to award legal rights to gay couples is because the stability of such relationships is now recognized. There is no reason, therefore, why such couples cannot provide a stable and loving upbringing for children. Nature has shown in many species that, when one or both parents die, an uncle or aunt frequently takes on the child-rearing role.



Some babies are born with a predisposition to homosexuality (both human and in other races), and their upbringing will not be affect their sexuality. Attempting to suppress this genetic predisposition has resulted in great misery for many people. Rather, we should accept this and look to embrace all gay people fully which must include celebrating gay role models, especially as responsible parents.

In many cases, children are currently being responsibly reared by gay couples, where one of the partners is a biological parent. Allowing adoption by the other merely confers legal rights on an already successful, if informal, family model.

Celebrities Involved in Adoption

Sushmita Sen - Miss Universe and film actress Sushmita Sen, is a single mother who adopted a child. As she puts it, - "This little girl needed a mom and I needed a child".


Brad Pitt and Angelina JolieBrad Pitt and Angelina Jolie have three adopted children, Maddox, Pax, and Zahara, and three biological children, Shiloh, Knox, and Vivienne.


Madonna - Madonna is an american performer, adopted 2 children Mercy and David, and she opened a school the Raising Malawi Academy for Girls school.


Tom Cruise - Tom Cruise, is an American film actor and producer, adopted two children Isabella and connor.


Hugh Jackman - Hugh Michael Jackman (born 12 October 1968) is an Australian actor and producer who is involved in film, musical theatre, and television. He has adopted two children Oscar and Ava.

Public Perception

In Western culture, the dominant conception of family revolves around a heterosexual couple with biological offspring. This idea places alternatives family forms outside the norm. As a consequence, research indicates, disparaging views of adoptive families exist, along with doubts concerning the strength of their family bonds.Actors at the Anne of Green Gables Museum on Prince Edward Island, Canada. Since its first publication in 1908, the story of the orphaned Anne, and how the Cuthbert took her in, has been widely popular in the English-speaking world and, later, Japan.

The most recent adoption attitudes survey completed by the Evan Donaldson Institute provides further evidence of this stigma. Nearly one-third of the surveyed population believed adoptees are less-well adjusted, more prone to medical issues, and predisposed to drug and alcohol problems. Additionally, 40-45% thought adoptees were more likely to have behavior problems and trouble at school. In contrast, the same study indicated adoptive parents were viewed favorably, with nearly 90% describing them as, "lucky, advantaged, and unselfish.

The majority of people state that their primary source of information about adoption comes from friends and family and the news media. Nevertheless, most people report the media provides them a favorable view of adoption; 72% indicated receiving positive impressions. There is, however, still substantial criticism of the media's adoption coverage. Some adoption blogs, for example, criticized Meet the Robinsons for using outdated orphanage imagery as did advocacy non-profit The Evan B. Donaldson Adoption Institute.

The stigmas associated with adoption are amplified for children in foster care. Negative perceptions result in the belief that such children are so troubled it would be impossible to adopt them and create "normal" families.[ A 2004 report from the Pew Commission on Children in Foster Care has shown that the number of children waiting in foster care doubled since the 1980s and now remains steady at about a half-million a year.

Adoption & Live-Birth Ratio


Country

Adoptions

Live Births

Adoption/Live Birth Ratio

Australia

270 (2007-2008)

254,000 (2004)

0.2 per 100 Live Births

England & Wales

4,764 (2006)

669,601 (2006)

0.7 per 100 Live Births

Iceland

Between 20-35 year

4,560 (2007)

0.8 per 100 Live Births

Ireland

263 (2003)

61,517 (2003)

0.4 per 100 Live Births

Italy

3,158 (2006)

560,010 (2006)

0.6 per 100 Live Births

Norway

657 (2006)

58,545 (2006)

1.1 per 100 Live Births

Sweden

1044 (2002)

91,466 (2002)

1.1 per 100 Live Births

United States

Approx. 127,000 (2001)

4,021,725 (2002)

3 per 100 Live Births

Steps Made To Encourage Adoption

  • Many Organizations have started inquiring from families, those who want to children from other countries. 
  • National authorities are urged to ensure the implementation of Hugh Convention.
  • Every Child has been given the right to know about his/her own parents.
  • There has been a rapid increase in the number of families wanting to adopt a child.
  • Many ethical and transparent processes are undertaken in the best interest of child 
  • All decisions related to the children,including adoption are made with the best interest of the child.


10 Beautiful Reasons For Adoption

1. Genuine love for children - Although it may sound a bit unrealistic, there are many couples that adopt children due to their love for young ones. Their love for children is so compelling that they adopt children, irrespective of whether they have natural heirs or not.

2. A couple with two or more children of the same sex - If a couple already has two boys, they may crave for a girl child or vice versa. With no control over the sex of a natural child, they fear trying again. But they find it much safer to go ahead and adopt a ready made child of the opposite sex. Some couples adopt children out of their specific choice of sex/gender of the child. They may even adopt two children of both the sexes and complete the family thus.

3. A couple with only one child - Sometimes the 'only' child is a very lonely child. However, a couple, especially the mother, may not have the energy to go through the entire process of pregnancy and childbirth to pander to the needs of this only-lonely child. It seems much simpler to adopt a second child and complete the family.

4. A single person who wants to experience parenthood - All common people who wish to remain single and adopt children,can experience the joy and pleasure of parenthood.

5. To control the population - Some people genuinely believe that the world does not need any more children. They feel for the children who do not have families and home. Therefore, they decide to adopt children from this overpopulated world.It is one of the most touching ways of serving the social cause.

6. Thallasaemics - Those suffering from thallasaemia or any other high-risk genetic problems or incurable diseases decide that it is safer to adopt a child than try for one.

7. For the joy without the labour - You may heard of this joke that adoption in a healthy couple is the height of laziness. If a couple can produce a child, then it is pointless to adopt, many feel. But on a more serious note, some women are genuinely scared of labour pains and the process of pregnancy. Or some women do not want to lose their figures after child birth. They adopt children and experience the joy of parenthood without the pain.

8. People involved in their careers - Some couples do not have the time, energy or the inclination to go through the process of childbirth. They find more convenient to go in for adoption. In some cases, the biological clock of career-oriented women may run out, and they may be compelled to adopt.

9. To help out a friend or a relative - There can be a specific reason behind adoption. For example, a couple wanted to help out a friend who had fallen on bad days. Therefore, they decided to adopt his son. Sometimes, some couples are blessed with twins. They do not know how to handle two infants at a time. And then comes a childless couple who wants to adopt one of the twins.

10. Adopting an older child - Some couples may not want to  go through the grind of late nights and nappy changes. Therefore, they decide to adopt an older child. In this manner, they are saved from the physical stress and mental strain of raising an infant.



Interviews

What do you think, CHILD ADOPTION should be encouraged or not? And if yes,  why?

ANSWER :
1. In my opinion child adoption should be encouraged as it give life to a child as well as the parents (couple)
Mrs. Pratibha Arora
Librarian
D.L.D.A.V.Model school,India

2. I think it should be encouraged because an unwanted child  gets a happy home.
Mrs. Aarti Nagpal
PGT
India

3. Child adoption is the best option for childless couples and as far as  I know there are rules to ensure that people who can have their own children are not allowed to adopt , if at all they are allowed it is after ensuring well being of the child . Hurdles are the strict rules and regulations but  these are must.
Mrs. Preeti Vinayak
PGT
India

4. As every process has two faces-positive and negative. Child adoption also has two faces . Positively,we certainly give new life & well being to a child. But negatively, if we fail to give him\her proper emotional setup, he\she will become little bit discontent with the life or surroundings. So  , it is nice to adopt a child but there must be few rules and regulations, that should be followed strictly by the guardians.
Mrs Sharmila
PGT
India

5. Child adoption is the best way to serve the society. A child can get family and home. It is a beautiful way to make an unwanted child a responsible citizen of the county. I think each one should adopt one.
Mrs. Seema Sharma
Teacher
India

6. Giving life to a child is the best way to serve. I think child adoption caters to the need of both the parents as well as the child.
Mrs P. Morrison
Teacher
Canada

7. I think child adoption is a boom to both parents & child  . A child gets an opportunity to live a decent life as, parents on their side are blessed with all the joys of childhood. They feel completely within them.
Gemini Kaushik
Student 
USA

8. I, believe very firmly in the concept of child adoption. It is the one way to do a deed that will be very dear to god. It not only will satisfy your urge to have a child & shower your blessings , love , care , warmth on him but you will be brightening up the life of an underprivileged child. So, adoting from the orphanages or from the poor families should be encouraged.
Mrs. Ritu Mahajan
Teacher
India

9. Child adoption is a wonderful & great deed. There are so many children who lack the love of their parents & have the right to feel the same like others. It should be really encouraged as it is the best way to spread happiness.
Sheena Sharma
Student
Canada

10. Child is the greatest gift of god and every child should get an opportunity to live life to the fullest. Child adoption is an excellent idea . This is one of the way to give them all the basic needs so that they can also live like the other privileged children.
Vision Kaushik
Student
USA

11. With the increase in stress of life, improvement of technology & increasing pollution level , the infertility level is increasing in couples. Instead of opting other methods of getting the child, I hope adoption is the best way because that way we provide home & parentage to an orphan child. Parents get the satisfaction & love from child. But many people have misused it, so the laws have become strict for this now. In a way to stop child trafficking  such strict enforcement of laws is also important.
Mr Mike Chambers
Teacher
Canada

12. Yes, child adoption should be encouraged so that those unwanted children can get a healthy secured life. Parents also can fulfil their dreams by adopting a child and population rate can also be somehow or other controlled.
Diana Escamilla Brambila
Student
USA

A Team Work !!!

The Humanitarians !!

Shikhar Pandey
Hey everyone, I'm Shikhar from India. I have done a lot of projects in my school and competitions but this was one of the most exciting, thrilling and challenging project I have ever worked in. Specially, leading such an intellectual team was really the best part. Our team worked really hard to make this project as effective as possible in today's modern life. This project empowers the truth and selfless love among the humans. Today, we all want everything of our own and not of anybody else but none of us realize the pain and sorrow faced by an orphan or a non-privileged child. This project therefore deals with the legal problems and issues that prevent adoption across the world. In developing countries like India, a child is born every 1 minute but every half an hour a child dies due to starvation and poverty. But in developed nations like USA, UK, Canada etc there is a lack of children, some couples are not able to have children. Therefore, these countries look for adopting children from developing nations. This would also contribute to the global population and economy.Therefore 'Each One, Adopt One'.    

Annika Saraf
Hello, I am Annika Saraf from India. Working in this project is really one of the best things I have ever done, at least I feel so because it was so fun to do project like this. Basically, I collected the data but was no less in putting my best in everything .Because of the age limit I was so desperately waiting for me to be in 9th standard so that I could be a part of ThinkQuest Project. I always used to see my seniors doing ThinkQuest projects & always wanted to do one. Learning is an ongoing process which never stops & I have learned a lot from this project. Before entering this project, to be very true I had never thought of adoption more than completing a family. But now this I can say that one should surely adopt one to serve the humanity as well as spread love!

Juhi Dabra
Hey friends, I'm Juhi from India. I really enjoyed by accompanying my team in this project. Our main aim was to convey the message  that child adoption must be encouraged in all countries for the betterment of unprivileged children all over the world. We have done this to  convey the message of adoption all over the world. We conducted a lot of interviews of parents who have adopted children and the adoptees.There was a difference in opinion but majority of people said that adoption should be encouraged. I also firmly believe that adoption should be encouraged so that every unprivileged child gets a happy life.

Citations

For History, Modern Period, Forms Of Adoption
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adoption
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Traianus_Glyptothek_Munich_336.jpg
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ferdinand_Georg_Waldm%C3%BCller_003.jpg
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:CharlesLoringBrace.jpg
http://www.theparentszone.com/wp-content/uploads/2007/08/child-adoption.jpg
http://www.barkuslaw.com/resources/_wsb_399x265_020131_1292_0018_lsms.jpg
http://www.parentscanada.com/uploads/borders-1.jpg

For Adoption Across the World
http://international.adoption.com/
http://india.adoption.com/
http://argentina.adoption.com/
http://turkey.adoption.com/
http://south-africa.adoption.com/
http://mexico.adoption.com/
http://www.wikipedia.org/

International Adoption
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_adoption
http://crossroadsadoption.com/Portals/0/images/International.jpg

Rules & Regulations
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_adoption
http://www.indiaparenting.com/adoption/4_1347/adoption-rules-in-india.html
http://www.journeysoftheheart.net/international/Taiwan%20Child%20Adoption%20Program%20News.JPG

Organisations Supporting Adoption
http://www.wikipedia.org/

Policies Of adoption
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_adoption
http://www.broadland.gov.uk/images/family_image1.jpg

Adoption By Homosexuals Couples
http://www.child-adoption-matters.com/same-sex-adoption-1.html
http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-71JmL6Nu93k/TZgEQPmL-ZI/AAAAAAAAAEA/sH3aWXRKmm4/s1600/gay_adoption.jpg

Celebrities
http://www.wikipedia.org/
http://www.google.com/imghp?hl=en&tab=wi

Live-Birth Ratio, Public Perception
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adoption

For images

Steps Made To Encourage Adoption